Her current projects include 1 qualitative research on how the social context is present in the micro-interactions of couples and families, 2 how to work with socio-political issues in the moment by moment of couple therapy, and 3 how to improve teaching, learning, and application of social justice principles in family therapy.
Carmen Knudson-Martin Professor. Rogers Hall. From the Newsroom Professor lays out innovative approach to couples counseling in new book. In a new book, Carmen Knudson-Martin explains a new approach to couples counseling that integrates neurobiology with understanding of gender, culture, personal identities and relationship processes. Second, egalitarian therapeutic relationships should be paramount, and clinical processes should not mimic the differential power relationships that exist in society.
Finally, women's experiences should be valued and privileged. This course will provide an overview of how gender influences cognitive scripts and behavior. This will set the context in understanding the gender biases that exist in clinical practices, such as diagnosing, assessment, the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , and social constructions of "abnormality. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. NetCE is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs.
Organizations, not individual courses, are approved under this program. State and provincial regulatory boards have the final authority to determine whether an individual course may be accepted for continuing education credit. NetCE maintains responsibility for this course.
Course Content - # An Overview of Feminist Counseling - NetCE
Materials that are included in this course may include interventions and modalities that are beyond the authorized practice of licensed master social work and licensed clinical social work in New York. As a licensed professional, you are responsible for reviewing the scope of practice, including activities that are defined in law as beyond the boundaries of practice for an LMSW and LCSW.
A licensee who practices beyond the authorized scope of practice could be charged with unprofessional conduct under the Education Law and Regents Rules. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 2. Social workers participating in this intermediate to advanced course will receive 5 Clinical continuing education clock hours. The purpose of this course is to increase the level of awareness and knowledge base of clinicians about the role of gender bias in construction of abnormality and the diagnostic and therapeutic process. Discuss the demographic landscape of the United States as it pertains to gender.
Analyze how sex and gender influence cognitive scripts and behaviors. Describe the historical context of feminism. Identify and define the different types of feminism. Discuss the role of gender biases in mental health diagnosis, assessment, and clinical practice. Identify the premises of feminist counseling.
Outline interventions and therapy goals based on feminist counseling. Discuss ethical implications within the context of feminist counseling.
Explain key controversies and future directions of feminist counseling. She has clinical experience in mental health in correctional settings, psychiatric hospitals, and community health centers. In that year she taught the course Research Methods and Violence Against Women to Masters degree students, as well as conducting qualitative research studies on death and dying in Chinese American families.
Her research focus is on the area of culture and mental health in ethnic minority communities. Contributing faculty, Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned. The purpose of NetCE is to provide challenging curricula to assist healthcare professionals to raise their levels of expertise while fulfilling their continuing education requirements, thereby improving the quality of healthcare. Our contributing faculty members have taken care to ensure that the information and recommendations are accurate and compatible with the standards generally accepted at the time of publication.
The publisher disclaims any liability, loss or damage incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents. Participants are cautioned about the potential risk of using limited knowledge when integrating new techniques into practice. It is the policy of NetCE not to accept commercial support. Furthermore, commercial interests are prohibited from distributing or providing access to this activity to learners.
Supported browsers for Windows include Microsoft Internet Explorer 9. Supported browsers for Macintosh include Safari, Mozilla Firefox 3. Supported browsers must utilize the TLS encryption protocol v1. TLS v1. Female scholars and researchers have long argued against the preponderance of androcentric or male-oriented theories that have been developed by male scientists, which have resulted in a biased psychologic framework. Developmental theories, like Eric Erikson's stages of development theory, focus on separation of the self from others, and implicit in this theory is that all other contexts are deviant .
For example, women are more relational, and theorists like Carol Gilligan argue that women's development is embedded within the context of relationships [35, 59]. It is difficult to integrate this concept into Erikson's theory. Psychoanalytic theory maintains that penis envy causes neurosis for women, which is clearly androcentric. These theories neglect the role of gender as an important contextual variable that contributes to and is influenced by the differential power structures experienced by men and women . Not only were many psychologic theories developed by men, the research studies used to test theories historically included only men.
There were those who argued that women need not be included in psychologic and psychiatric research because men and women are essentially the same . Others assert that women should not be included in studies because any existing differences due to hormones would lead to overwhelming variations in studies' findings . Many female scholars and practitioners were also concerned that gender biases could affect the therapeutic relationship between the client and clinicians.
The question becomes: Who developed the knowledge? How might this knowledge reflect male biases? Ultimately, feminist scholars and counselors urged the field to look beyond the individual deficits model and seeking help through micro-oriented interventions like medication.
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They argue that placing pathology within the individual ultimately blames the individual . Instead, the role of larger social context and macro-institutional structures in perpetuating gender inequalities and its role in various social problems must be examined. This will include exploring the gender biases that exist in clinical practice such as diagnosing, assessment, the development of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM , and social constructions of abnormality. Currently, women make up more than half of the U. As of , U.
Theories Used in Social Work Practice
Census data shows that, overall, women slightly outnumber men; In , there were There were Over the years, the educational disparity between men and women has decreased. In , women comprised This is also reflected in the occupational sectors, as more and more women are represented in professional fields. Overall, in , women comprise In , the U. Census showed that Although women have made great strides in the last three decades, there continue to be disconcerting trends.
Women are still not well represented in the computer and mathematics However, they are better represented in the social sciences; The U. Census Bureau indicates that women are still more highly represented as secretaries and administrative assistants than any other occupation . The terms gender and sex are often used interchangeably.
It was not until the s that it was advocated that the two terms not be used interchangeably . Gender is a sociologic concept and refers to the characteristics and traits that are viewed as appropriate to men and women . In other words, gender is a social construct influenced by societal, institutional, historical, and cultural norms . Gender affects patterns of societal, community, familial, and individual expectations; processes of daily life; intrapsychic processes; and social interactions .
Gender is also defined by existing institutions and ideologies and is imbued with views about power differentials. Meanwhile, sex is the biologic classification based on reproductive organs i. Upon birth, an individual is classified as male or female based on the appearance of their genitals . Sex revolves around what is biologic or natural, while gender is related to what is learned due to the social, political, and cultural influences . This has important implications for discussions of differences between men and women.
Is it implied that these differences are natural and unchangeable? Or can they be altered through activism and changes in social and institutional forces ? The phrase "doing gender" can be helpful in understanding the differences between gender and sex. When two individuals are engaged in a conversation, gender messages are disseminated by the individuals' appearance, the tones they utilize, and how they converse. Furthermore, each individual will perceive the gender of the other and will react accordingly, making gender dynamic, not static .
As mentioned, gender and sex as concepts were not differentiated until the s . Before this empirical differentiation, biology was viewed as destiny. There was little or no acknowledgement that individuals' behaviors and responses and the differences between men and women were influenced by societal norms based on what was expected for men and women .
Today, the dichotomy of the sex and gender debate is considered overly simplistic. Individual differences emanate from both biologic and social forces, and both shape behavior . There are also four general approaches or perspectives to conceptualizing gender .
The deficit approach makes the assumption that women's behaviors and responses reflect a deficit, often in comparison to men's behaviors. The dominance perspective frames understanding of behaviors under the headings of men's power and women's subordination.
Counseling Women Across the Life Span
The third approach is the difference perspective, which argues that differences between the genders are shaped by the different subcultures in which men and women reside. Finally, the dynamic or social constructivist perspective emphasizes the dynamic nature of interaction and the meanings ascribed to these interactions . Knowledge of an individual's gender provides information that ultimately influences how people behave, think, and react to individuals .
Hoffman and Pasley assert there are five cognitive structures influenced by gender  :. Beliefs or standards, or the underlying systems that define how men and women "should be". All five of these cognitive structures are dynamic, interrelated, and influenced by gender as a social category.
Gender stereotypes are beliefs or assumptions about men's and women's roles and characteristics; however, they do not necessarily correspond to reality. They have strong prescriptive effects on individuals' responses . Gender stereotypes can lead to prejudice and discrimination. For example, an employer might hold a belief that women are too emotional a gender stereotype , leading to dislike and prejudice a negative attitude toward female employees.